Calcitonin Pharmacology

Contents

What stimulates calcitonin release?

Calcitonin secretion is stimulated by increases in the serum calcium concentration and calcitonin protects against the development of hypercalcemia. Calcitonin is also stimulated by gastrointestinal hormones such as gastrin.

Which endocrine glands secretes calcitonin?

Calcitonin is secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. This hormone opposes the action of the parathyroid glands by reducing the calcium level in the blood.

Does calcitriol increase phosphorus?

Calcitriol increases blood levels of calcium by increasing the absorption of calcium in the kidneys, increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine, and increasing the release of calcium and phosphorus from the bones. Calcitriol helps the body to use calcium found in foods and supplements.

Why is Lasix given over 2 minutes?

Furosemide (Lasix) Each 40 mg or fraction thereof over 1-2 minutes Monitor BP, electrolytes, CO2, and BUN. Risk of otoxicity increases with higher doses, rapid injection, decreased renal function, or concurrent use with other otoxic drugs.

What class of drug is calcium?

Calcium carbonate belongs to a group of drugs called antacids. These work by reducing the effect of acid in the stomach.

Does calcitonin increase osteoblast activity?

The data show that calcitonin, because of its antiresorptive effects, can prevent bone loss after cessation of ovarian function. However, short-term treatment with calcitonin does not stimulate osteoblast activity; on the contrary, it exerts a negative effect on osteoblastic bone formation and mineralization.

Does calcitonin increase bone deposition?

Calcitonin: A hormone produced by the thyroid gland that lowers the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood and promotes the formation of bone.

Does calcitonin have side effects?

Nausea. Nausea with or without vomiting has been noted in about 10% of patients treated with calcitonin salmon. It is most evident when treatment is first initiated and tends to decrease or disappear with continued administration.

Calcitonin Pharmacology

Calcitonin is a hormone protein that lowers the concentration of blood calcium when it has risen to an above normal level. In humans and other mammals, calcitonin is secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland while in fish, birds and reptiles it is secreted by the ultimobranchial gland.Feb 26, 2019

How does calcitonin treat hypercalcemia?

Pharmacologic doses of calcitonin reduce the serum calcium concentration by increasing renal calcium excretion and, more importantly, by decreasing bone resorption via interference with osteoclast function [9,12].

How does calcitonin help lower the calcium ion concentration of blood?

How does calcitonin help lower the calcium ion concentration of blood? Calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity and increasing the rate of calcium excretion at the kidneys.

Does calcitonin increase potassium?

By contrast, a rise in serum levels of ionized calcium stimulates the release of calcitonin, which inhibits calcium mobilization from bone and increases the renal excretion of calcium, phosphate, sodium, chloride, potassium, and magnesium (Figure 5-1).

Why is calcitonin a nasal spray?

Calcitonin nasal spray is used together with calcium and vitamin D to treat bone loss in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis who have been postmenopause for at least 5 years. This product is available in the following dosage forms: Spray.

What are the usual side effects with calcitonin?

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  • Crusting, patches, or sores inside the nose.
  • dryness, itching, redness, swelling, tenderness, or other signs of nasal irritation not present before use of this medicine.
  • headaches (severe or continuing)
  • nosebleeds.
  • stuffy nose.

What is the difference between vitamin D3 and calcitriol?

Vitamin D2 or D3 must then be first hydroxylated in the liver and then in the kidneys to become active. At this point, as biologically active 1,25-OH-cholecalciferol (also called calcitriol), this form of vitamin D can exert its endocrine effects (1).

Is calcitonin a first line treatment for osteoporosis?

We do not use calcitonin as first-line therapy, because more effective drugs are available for prevention of bone loss and reduction of fracture risk. (See “Overview of the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women”.)

Does TSH stimulate calcitonin?

It is well known that circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) controls the secretion of 3,3?,5-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), and calcium ions control the secretion of calcitonin (CT) and parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Is calcitonin a steroid or nonsteroidal?

Hormones

Endocrine Glands and Their Major Hormones
Endocrine gland Associated hormones Chemical class
Thyroid Calcitonin Peptide
Parathyroid Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Peptide
Adrenal (cortex) Aldosterone Steroid

Why is calcitonin used for osteoporosis?

Calcitonin is a hormone naturally produced in the thyroid. When given to patients with osteoporosis, calcitonin produces modest increases in bone mass because it slows the rate at which osteoclasts absorb bone. Only women who are at least five years past menopause can take calcitonin.

How do you give calcitonin injection?

The starting dose is 4 International Units (IU) per kilogram (kg) of body weight injected into a muscle or under the skin every 12 hours. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 8 IU per kg of body weight every 6 hours.

What are the 3 calcium regulating hormones?

Three calcium-regulating hormones play an important role in producing healthy bone: 1) parathyroid hormone or PTH, which maintains the level of calcium and stimulates both resorption and formation of bone; 2) calcitriol, the hormone derived from vitamin D, which stimulates the intestines to absorb enough calcium and …

What is the best medication for severe osteoporosis?

Bisphosphonates are usually the first choice for osteoporosis treatment. These include: Alendronate (Fosamax), a weekly pill. Risedronate (Actonel), a weekly or monthly pill.

Does calcitonin inhibit calcitriol?

Calcitriol also inhibits the release of calcitonin, a hormone which reduces blood calcium primarily by inhibiting calcium release from bone.

What is calcitonin target cell?

In particular, calcitonin has the ability to decrease blood calcium levels at least in part by effects on two well-studied target organs: Bone: Calcitonin suppresses resorption of bone by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, a cell type that “digests” bone matrix, releasing calcium and phosphorus into blood.

Which is a therapeutic effect of calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a potent hormonal inhibitor of bone resorption. Its major therapeutic effect is in the treatment of Paget’s Disease of bone, in which it has been shown to reduce bone pain, lead to radiological and histological improvement in bone, and to restore abnormal biochemistry towards normal.

What are C cells?

A type of cell in the thyroid. C cells make calcitonin, a hormone that helps control the calcium level in the blood.

What is the mechanism of action of calcitonin?

Calcitonin reduces calcium levels in the blood by two main mechanisms: It inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, which are the cells responsible for breaking down bone. When bone is broken down, the calcium contained in the bone is released into the bloodstream.

What is the structure of calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone of 32 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 3454.93 daltons. Its structure comprises a single alpha helix. Alternative splicing of the gene coding for calcitonin produces a distantly related peptide of 37 amino acids, called calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), beta type.

Can calcitriol cause hypercalcemia?

Calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia accounts for approximately 1% of cases of hypercalcemia in the setting of malignancy [3]. Under normal physiologic circumstances, vitamin D is stored in the liver as 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

What does calcitonin do to bone cells?

Bone: Calcitonin suppresses resorption of bone by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, a cell type that “digests” bone matrix, releasing calcium and phosphorus into blood.

Is calcitriol for hypocalcemia?

Conclusions: Calcitriol combined with calcium can be used in treatment of hypocalcemia caused by hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism effectively and safely. Serum and urinary calcium levels should be monitored during the course of the therapy.

What is the difference between calcitonin and calcitriol?

While calcitonin and calcitriol are both hormones that affect calcium levels, they have different functions calcitriol helps increase blood calcium levels, and calcitonin helps decrease blood calcium levels.

What does calcitonin do to osteoclasts?

Calcitonin, a calcium regulatory hormone, strongly inhibits bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. The calcitonin-induced inhibition of osteoclast function is believed to be due to disruption of cytoskeletal organization (distraction of actin rings) and disappearance of the cellular polarity of osteoclasts.

What is another name for calcitonin?

calcitonin, also called thyrocalcitonin, a protein hormone synthesized and secreted in humans and other mammals primarily by parafollicular cells (C cells) in the thyroid gland.

Can calcitonin cause hypertension?

Calcitonin gene-related peptide, a potent vasodilator neuropeptide, is localized in perivascular sensory nerves. We have reported that ?-calcitonin gene-related peptide knockout mice have elevated baseline blood pressure and enhanced hypertension-induced renal damage compared with wild-type controls.

Which cells secrete the hormone calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland.

Does calcitonin inhibit osteoclasts?

Although calcitonin pharmacologically acts on osteoclasts to prevent bone resorption, the results of studies on genetically modified animals have shown that the physiological effect of calcitonin is in the inhibition of osteoblastic bone formation.

What is calcitonin generic name?

List of Calcitonin:

Drug Name Avg. Rating Reviews
Fortical (Pro) Generic name: calcitonin 1.0 2 reviews
Miacalcin Nasal (Pro) Generic name: calcitonin 6.0 1 review
Miacalcin (Pro) Generic name: calcitonin 2.5 1 review

What hormone increases calcium levels?

PTH raises calcium levels by releasing calcium from your bones and increasing the amount of calcium absorbed from your small intestine. When blood-calcium levels are too high, the parathyroid glands produce less PTH . But sometimes one or more of these glands produce too much hormone.

Is calcitriol and vitamin D the same?

Calcitriol, which can be regarded as the active hormonal form of vitamin D, has the most potent hypercalcemic effect in both normal and renal failure patients.

Is calcitonin a steroid or amino acid?

Calcitonin, a 32 amino peptide synthesized in the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid, is found in lower concentrations in women than in men and decreases with aging.

What is the target cell of calcitonin?

Endocrine gland/ source of hormone Hormone Target organ or tissue
Thyroid Calcitonin Bone
Parathyroids PTH (parathyroid hormone) Bone, kidneys, intestine
Thymus (regresses in adulthood) Thymopoetin T-lymphocyte cells in blood
Pancreas (islet cells) Insulin (from beta cells) Most tissues, notably muscle and liver

Why is calcitonin given?

Calcitonin injection is used to treat Paget’s disease of the bone. It may also be used to prevent bone loss in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to treat hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood).

What is the purpose of calcitriol?

Calcitriol is used to treat and prevent low levels of calcium and bone disease in patients whose kidneys or parathyroid glands (glands in the neck that release natural substances to control the amount of calcium in the blood) are not working normally.

Is calcitonin a peptide hormone?

Calcitonin (CT) is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by special type of cells within the thyroid gland in mammals, called C cells.

What is hydroxyvitamin?

25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is the major circulating form of vitamin D; thus, the total serum 25(OH)D level is currently considered the best indicator of vitamin D supply to the body from cutaneous synthesis and nutritional intake.

Does vitamin D raise calcium levels?

Along with the aforementioned reasons, taking a vitamin D supplement over an extended period of time can cause the blood calcium level to rise.

What is the difference between calcitonin and parathyroid hormone?

Parathyroid hormone acts to increase blood calcium levels, while calcitonin acts to decrease blood calcium levels. When blood calcium levels drop below a certain point, calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid gland are activated, and the parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone into the blood.

What are the four function of calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a hormone that your thyroid gland makes and releases to help regulate calcium levels in your blood by decreasing it. Calcitonin opposes the actions of the parathyroid hormone, which is a hormone that increases your blood calcium levels.

What stimulates osteoclast activity?

Osteoclastic activity is stimulated by cytokines such as IL-6 and RANK and inhibited by calcitonin.

Does calcitonin help with pain?

The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is well known clinically for its ability to relieve osteoporotic back pain and neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and complex regional pain syndrome.

What is another name for calcitriol?

Calcitriol is a synthetic version of Vitamin D3 used to treat calcium deficiency with hypoparathyroidism (decreased functioning of the parathyroid glands) and metabolic bone disease in people with chronic kidney failure. Calcitriol is available under the following different brand names: Calcijex and Rocaltrol.

How does calcitriol increase calcium levels?

It is a hormone which binds to and activates the vitamin D receptor in the nucleus of the cell, which then increases the expression of many genes. Calcitriol increases blood calcium (Ca2+) mainly by increasing the uptake of calcium from the intestines.

What are the contraindications of calcitonin?

Who should not take CALCITONIN-SALMON?

  • cancer or malignancy.
  • low vitamin D levels.
  • low amount of calcium in the blood.

What is the function of calcitriol?

Calcitriol is used to treat and prevent low levels of calcium and bone disease in patients whose kidneys or parathyroid glands (glands in the neck that release natural substances to control the amount of calcium in the blood) are not working normally.

What is the function of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone?

Parathyroid hormone acts to increase blood calcium levels, while calcitonin acts to decrease blood calcium levels.

Where is calcitonin administered?

Calcitonin salmon comes as a solution to be injected under the skin (subcutaneously) or into the muscle (intramuscularly). It is usually used once a day or once every other day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand.

What type of drug is calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a man-made form of a hormone that occurs naturally in the thyroid gland. Calcitonin injection is used to treat Paget’s disease of bone, or high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). Calcitonin injection is also used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Can calcitonin be given IV?

It is usually given intramuscularly or subcutaneously. In emergency situations it can be given by continuous intravenous infusion. There are two types of calcitonin in clinical use, synthetic calcitonin (salmon) and synthetic calcitonin (human).

What are the 2 effects of calcitonin?

Its main biological effect is to inhibit the resorption of bone. This effect, in combination with a calciuric action of calcitonin, can produce a lowering of blood calcium. These biological effects of calcitonin have made it useful in the treatment of hypercalcemic and hyperresorptive disorders.

How many amino acids make up calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a peptide hormone consisting of 32 amino acid residues and the calcitonin receptor is a Class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).

Is calcitriol a vitamin D?

Calcitriol is a man-made active form of vitamin D.

What is the mechanism of action of calcitonin?

Calcitonin reduces calcium levels in the blood by two main mechanisms: It inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, which are the cells responsible for breaking down bone. When bone is broken down, the calcium contained in the bone is released into the bloodstream.