Last Updated on October 2, 2022 by amin
041: Polybius of Megalopolis – Historian of the Hellenistic Age
Where is Polybius from?
How does Polybius portray Hannibal?
Polybius – for all he was the mouthpiece of the Scipio family – describes Hannibal in 218bc as ‘young, full of martial ardour, encouraged by the success of his enterprises, and spurred on by his long-standing enmity to Rome‘ (Polybius 3.15.
When was Polybius histories written?
Written in the 2nd century by the Greek historian Polybius, “The Histories” is a multi-volume work detailing many of the events, people, and ideas of the Hellenistic Period.
What occurred in 264 BC?
The First Punic War began in 264 B.C. when Rome interfered in a dispute on the Carthaginian-controlled island of Sicily; the war ended with Rome in control of both Sicily and Corsica and marked the empire’s emergence as a naval as well as a land power.
What did sallust write?
Sallust, born approximately 446 years before Sulpicius, wrote two notable works: De Catilinae Coniuratione (The Conspiracy of Catiline), and Bellum Iugurthae (The War of Jugurtha). These texts focus on an analysis and critique of the corrupt, political scene in Rome during the late Republic.
Who won the mercenary war?
To prevent this, in 240 BC Spendius and Autaritus tortured 700 Carthaginian prisoners to death (including Gisco), after which the war was pursued with great brutality on both sides.
|Date||241238 or 237 BC|
|Result||Carthaginian victory in Africa|
|Territorial changes||Opportunistic Roman annexation of Sardinia and Corsica|
What was the worst defeat in Roman history?
In September AD 9 half of Rome’s Western army was ambushed in a German forest. Three legions, comprising some 25,000 men under the Roman General Varus, were wiped out by an army of Germanic tribes under the leadership of Arminius.
When was Polybius born?
How did the government of the Roman Republic function according to Polybius?
In Polybius’ analysis of the Roman constitution, the monarchy was consolidated in the position of Consul. Rome had two consuls, reelected every year, who were both in charge of legions of the Roman army and who had the power to summon assemblies and introduce various measures to the Senate.
How many Punic Wars were there?
Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean.
Why did Rome have two consuls?
There were two consuls in order to create a check on the power of any individual citizen in accordance with the republican belief that the powers of the former kings of Rome should be spread out into multiple offices. To that end, each consul could veto the actions of the other consul.
How do you quote Polybius?
Polybius > Quotes
- There is no witness so dreadful, no accuser so terrible as the conscience that dwells in the heart of every man. …
- If history is deprived of the Truth, we are left with nothing but an idle, unprofitable tale.
Did the Trojans become the Romans?
Because the idea that they were Trojans was simply a myth. The Romans were, and always had been, an Italic people native to Western Italy. The myth of Trojan descent arose in response to the Romans’ discovery of Greek culture and the Homeric poems.
Who destroyed 7 legions in a day?
Republican Rome was pushed to the brink of collapse on August 2, 216 B.C., when the Carthaginian general Hannibal annihilated at least 50,000 of its legionaries at the Second Punic War’s Battle of Cannae.
What is Polybius in political thought?
Polybius, an Achaean statesman turned historian, developed a political theory not to justify a political position, advocate an ideal constitution, or speculate on the nature of law, justice, political authority, or the relation of man to the state, but for the practical purpose of explaining and predicting historical …
History of Polybius
Son of an Achaean statesman, Polybius was one of 1,000 eminent Achaeans deported to Rome in 168 bc for supposed disloyalty to the Romans. There he became mentor to Scipio Africanus the Younger, with whom he witnessed the destruction of Carthage soon after his political detention had ended.
Brian McGing introduces Polybius: The Histories
Who did Hannibal’s troops fight in the Alps?
For over 2,000 years, historians have argued over the route used by the Carthaginian general Hannibal to guide his army 30,000 soldiers, 37 elephants and 15,000 horses over the Alps and into Italy in just 16 days, conducting a military ambush against the Romans that was unprecedented in the history of warfare.
Who founded Italy?
According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC by twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas and who were grandsons of the Latin King, Numitor of Alba Longa.
How did Rome defeat Carthage?
In 147 bce, the Roman senate sent a new commander, Scipio Aemilianus, with orders to take the city by storm. He defeated the Carthaginian field army and built a mole to block the city’s harbor. The end came in the spring of 146 bce after the besiegers made a breach in the city walls.
What are the three elements of the Roman constitution?
According to Polybius, there were three elements of the Roman constitution. These elements included the Consuls, the Senate, and the people. Each group had different powers and responsibilities. The Consuls were responsible for administration.
When was Polybius alive?
Polybius (/p??l?bi?s/; Greek: ????????, Polbios; c. 200 c. 118 BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period.
|Polybius of Megalopolis|
|Born||c. 200 BC Megalopolis, Arcadia|
|Died||c. 118 BC Roman Greece|
Who wrote the history of Rome?
Who was the first Roman emperor?
He was a ruler of ability and vision and at his death, Augustus was proclaimed by the Senate to be a Roman god. This statue is thought to depict Caesar Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
How long did the Battle of Cannae last?
The Battle of Cannae The opposing forces faced each other for two days, during which time Hannibal sent small raiding parties to harass the Romans.
What is the cycle of government?
He distinguishes five forms of government: aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, and tyranny, and writes that governments devolve respectively in this order from aristocracy into tyranny. Plato’s cycle of governments is linked with his anthropology of the rulers that come with each form of government.
When was the histories written?
Sometime around the year 425 B.C., Herodotus published his magnum opus: a long account of the Greco-Persian Wars that he called The Histories. (The Greek word historie means inquiry.) Before Herodotus, no writer had ever made such a systematic, thorough study of the past or tried to explain the cause-and-effect …
Which general won the most battles in history?
Napoleon benefited from the large number of battles in which he led forces. Among his 43 listed battles, he won 38 and lost only 5. Napoleon overcame difficult odds in 17 of his victories, and commanded at a disadvantage in all 5 of his losses. No other general came close to Napoleon in total battles.
How did Rome fall?
Invasions by Barbarian tribes The most straightforward theory for Western Rome’s collapse pins the fall on a string of military losses sustained against outside forces. Rome had tangled with Germanic tribes for centuries, but by the 300s barbarian groups like the Goths had encroached beyond the Empire’s borders.
Who wrote very first Roman history in Latin?
Cato also wrote the first Latin history of Rome and of other Italian cities. He was the first Roman statesman to put his political speeches in writing as a means of influencing public opinion. Early Latin literature ended with Gaius Lucilius, who created a new kind of poetry in his 30 books of Satires (2nd century BC).
Is Polybius a credible source?
Throughout his books, Polybius has a lot to say about the correct way to write history, and it clear that he wanted to ‘get back to Thucydides’; he is generally regarded therefore as ancient historians go as a ‘reliable’ source.
When did the Romans rise to power?
The Roman Empire was founded when Augustus Caesar proclaimed himself the first emperor of Rome in 31BC and came to an end with the fall of Constantinople in 1453CE. An empire is a political system in which a group of people are ruled by a single individual, an emperor or empress.
Which historian would be best to learn about Rome’s founding?
Romulus and Remus There are several fascinating legends and myths on how the city of Rome was founded, all collected by the Italian historian, Tito Livio.
Where did Polybius get his information?
Polybius regarded oral sources as his most important, and the questioning of witnesses as the most vital part of a historian’s task; indeed, this is one reason why he chose to begin his main history at the year 220.
Who was Polybius patron?
Against local Greek and Macedonian interests in the Macedonian Wars, Polybius was deported and went to Rome. While in Rome he became a patron of such people as Aemilius Paullus and the Scipio family where he developed a great appreciation for Roman culture and power.
What is Polybius main objective when writing his history?
Polybius’ original purpose was to narrate the history of the 53 years (220168 bce)from Hannibal’s Spanish campaign to the Battle of Pydnaduring which Rome had made itself master of the world.
What did Polybius think of Rome?
Polybius believed that Rome’s constitution was effective for two reasons. Firstly, the constitution adapted to suit human nature. Secondly, it prevented what he referred to as anacyclosis, a cyclical theory of political evolution and decay.
Did Polybius think Rome was democratic?
The Roman Republic was never intended to be a democracy. Instead, as acknowledged by Polybius, it was an experiment that sought to fuse democracy, aristocracy and monarchy into the perfect socio-political system.
Who is the intended audience of Polybius histories?
Polybius’ target audience shows that his work was to be both useful and pragmatic. His core audience was to be statesmen and students, and there are many examples within his text that allude to this.
What is the historical context of Polybius The Histories?
Polybius’ Histories begin in the year 264 BC and end in 146 BC (Polybius was born around 200 BC and died around 117 BC). He is primarily concerned with the 53 years in which Ancient Rome became a dominant world power. This period, from 220167 BC, saw Rome subjugate Carthage and gain control over Hellenistic Greece.
Who was the last king of Rome?
Tarquin, Latin in full Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, (flourished 6th century bcdied 495 bc, Cumae [near modern Naples, Italy]), traditionally the seventh and last king of Rome, accepted by some scholars as a historical figure. His reign is dated from 534 to 509 bc.
Who is Rome named after?
They soon became involved in a petty quarrel, however, and Remus was slain by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named Rome after him.