Relenza (Zanamivir) Pharmocology

What drug classification is Relenza?

Relenza is a prescription medicine used as a prophylaxis and to treat the symptoms of influenza. Relenza may be used alone or with other medications. Relenza belongs to a class of drugs called Antivirals, Influenza; Neuraminidase Inhibitors.

Who makes zanamivir?

Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. It is currently marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Relenza as a powder for oral inhalation.

How much does Relenza cost without insurance?

The cost for Relenza inhalation powder 5 mg is around $71 for a supply of 20, depending on the pharmacy you visit. Prices are for cash paying customers only and are not valid with insurance plans.

Inhalation Powder.

Quantity Per unit Price
20 (5 x 4 each) $3.56 $71.10

What does the drug zanamivir do?

Zanamivir belongs to the family of medicines called antivirals, which are used to treat infections caused by viruses. Zanamivir is used in the treatment of the infection caused by the flu virus (influenza A and influenza B). This medicine may also be used to prevent and treat swine influenza A.

How zanamivir inhibits the spreading of virus?

Oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir are sialic acid analogues that inhibit influenza virus by competitively interacting with the neuraminidases of influenza A and B viruses. Influenza neuraminidase cleaves terminal sialic acid residues and destroys the receptors recognized by viral hemagglutinin.

Is zanamivir soluble?

Zanamivir is soluble in DMSO at a concentration of approximately 0.13 mg/ml. Further dilutions of the stock solution into aqueous buffers or isotonic saline should be made prior to performing biological experiments.

Which tablet is best for flu in Pakistan?

They include baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), oseltamivir (Tamiflu), peramivir (Rapivab), or zanamivir (Relenza). Ideally, the first dose should be taken within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Talk to your doctor, if you are at increased risk for complications from the flu.

What do hemagglutinin and neuraminidase do?

Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, which is responsible for virus attachment, interacts with the fusion protein in a virus type-specific manner to induce efficient membrane fusion.

What drug class is Tamiflu?

Oseltamivir is in a class of medications called neuraminidase inhibitors. It works by stopping the spread of the flu virus in the body. Oseltamivir helps shorten the time that flu symptoms such as a stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, cough, muscle or joint aches, tiredness, headache, fever, and chills last.

What is flu?

Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at higher risk of serious flu complications.

What are the two types of inhibitors?

There are two types of inhibitors; competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors. Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of the enzyme and prevent substrate from binding.

How was Relenza designed?

Relenza was developed through the use of the program GRID [35], which revealed a potentially strong binding site for an NH3+ group with a calculated binding energy of ?16 kcal/mol in the vicinity of the position normally occupied by the O4 hydroxyl of sialic acid [36].

Is Relenza a competitive inhibitor?

Competitive Inhibitors The drug Relenza acts as a competitive inhibitor, binding to the neuraminidase’s active site to prevent the cleavage of the docking protein.

Is Relenza better than Tamiflu?

May 27, 2009 — Question:What is the difference between Tamiflu and Relenza? Answer:They’re both effective antivirals to both prevent infection with swine flu virus, and to actually treat infection with swine flu virus.

How does Relenza work biology?

How does Relenza work? It blocks the action of the enzyme neuraminidase (also called sialidase) on the surface of types A and B influenza viruses, preventing them from spreading to other cells. Influenza viruses bind to sialic acids on the surface of host cells through the viral haemagglutinin glycoprotein.

Is Relenza an enzyme inhibitor?

The active ingredient in Relenza is zanamivir, a type of medication known as a neuraminidase inhibitor. Neuraminidase is an enzyme that works on the surface of influenza virus cells.

Is there any antiviral medicine?

The three FDA-approved neuraminidase antiviral flu drugs available in the United States, recommended by the CDC, include: oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza), and peramivir (Rapivab).

When was zanamivir invented?

Following its success in clinical trials, zanamivir was approved in 1999 as the first sialidase-targeting anti-influenza drug, with the tradename Relenza. Discovery and development of oseltamivir. The discovery of zanamivir provided a platform for further sialidase-targeted anti-influenza drugs.

Do antivirals weaken immune system?

The inhibitory effects of antivirals on immune cells may contribute to the immune deterioration observed in patients following prolonged use of the drugs.

Is zanamivir an antiviral?

Zanamivir, an antiviral agent, is a neuraminidase inhibitor indicated for treatment of uncomplicated acute illness due to influenza A and B virus in adults and pediatric patients 7 years and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days.

What is the antiviral for the flu?

The CDC recommends the antiviral drugs baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), oseltamivir (Tamiflu), and zanamivir (Relenza) for both flu prevention and treatment.. Baloxavir marboxil is taken orally and is approved for use in treatment of children 12 years of age and older.

How does oseltamivir Tamiflu and zanamivir Relenza work?

Tamiflu (oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir) are classes of drugs known as neuraminidase inhibitors. Both drugs are thought to prevent and reduce symptoms of flu by stopping the influenza virus from spreading inside the body.

How does zanamivir Relenza work?

Zanamivir is in a class of medications called neuraminidase inhibitors. It works by stopping the growth and spread of the flu virus in your body. Zanamivir helps shorten the time you have flu symptoms such as nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, muscle aches, tiredness, weakness, headache, fever, and chills.

Are there any natural antivirals?

Coumarins are a very large family of natural products. Many coumarin derivatives have been isolated from plants (Cao et al., 2019). Some coumarins have been reported to possess antiviral effects against influenza A virus.

What drug class is Decadron?

Dexamethasone belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It decreases your immune system’s response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling and allergic-type reactions.

How do Relenza and Tamiflu inhibit influenza virus propagation?

Drugs called neuraminidase inhibitors, which include oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza), inhibit the release of influenza A and B viruses from host cells. This inhibition stops the process of viral replication. Neuraminidase inhibitors are commonly used in both the prevention and the treatment of influenza.

When is zanamivir used?

Zanamivir is used to treat symptoms caused by the flu virus (influenza) if you have had symptoms for 2 days or less. It helps lessen symptoms (such as stuffy nose, cough, sore throat, fever/chills, headache, body aches, tiredness) and shortens the recovery time by about 1 to 2 days.

Is zanamivir over the counter?

Antiviral prescription flu medicines, such as Tamiflu (oseltamivir), Xofluza (baloxavir marboxil), Rapivab (peramivir), and Relenza (zanamivir), can help shorten the flu, while over-the-counter (OTC) medications mainly treat symptoms.

Is zanamivir an antibiotic?

Is Relenza (zanamivir) an antibiotic? No, Relenza (zanamivir) is an antiviral and only works against the influenza virus. Antibiotics are used to fight bacterial infections.

Relenza (Zanamivir) Pharmocology

The proposed mechanism of action of zanamivir is via inhibition of influenza virus neuraminidase with the possibility of alteration of virus particle aggregation and release. By binding and inhibiting the neuraminidase protein, the drug renders the influenza virus unable to escape its host cell and infect others.

What type of inhibitor is zanamivir?

Zanamivir is a potent competitive inhibitor of the neuraminidase glycoprotein, which is essential in the infective cycle of influenza A and B viruses.

What is the mechanism of action of oseltamivir?

Mechanism of Action Oseltamivir inhibits the neuraminidase enzyme, which is expressed on the viral surface. The enzyme promotes release of virus from infected cells and facilitates viral movement within the respiratory tract.

What is Relenza and how does it work?

Relenza works by blocking an enzyme (protein) called neuraminidase. The neuraminidase enzyme is responsible for releasing particles of the flu virus into your blood. By blocking this enzyme, Relenza helps prevent the flu virus from spreading in your body.

Who is Baloxavir?

Baloxavir is currently approved by the FDA for treatment of acute uncomplicated flu within 2 days of illness onset in people 12 years and older who are otherwise healthy, or at increased risk of developing flu-related complications, and for post-exposure prophylaxis of flu in people 12 years and older.

What is meant by antigenic shift?

Another type of change is called antigenic shift. Shift is an abrupt, major change in a flu A virus, resulting in new HA and/or new HA and NA proteins in flu viruses that infect humans. Antigenic shift can result in a new flu A subtype.

What is the cost of zanamivir?

About Zanamivir The lowest GoodRx price for the most common version of Relenza is around $65.94, 18% off the average retail price of $81.18.

What is the antiviral drug ribavirin?

Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C and some viral hemorrhagic fevers. For hepatitis C, it is used in combination with other medications such as simeprevir, sofosbuvir, peginterferon alfa-2b or peginterferon alfa-2a.

Who makes Tamiflu and Relenza?

Developed by Roche and approved in 1999, Tamiflu is a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) that exerts its antiviral activity by preventing both influenza A and influenza B from budding from the host cell. Other approved NAIs include GlaxoSmithKline’s Relenza (zanamivir) and Seqirus’ Rapivab (peramivir).

What is the generic name for zanamivir?

What is Relenza? Relenza (zanamivir) is an antiviral medicine that blocks the actions of viruses in your body. Relenza is used to treat flu symptoms caused by influenza virus in people who have had symptoms for less than 2 days.

Is Decadron a glucocorticoid?

Decadron is classified as a corticosteroid (more precisely a glucocorticosteroid), and has many uses in the treatment of cancer. One way that it works is to decrease inflammation (swelling).

What enzyme does Relenza act?

They target the enzyme, neuraminidase, which is found on the surface of all strains of the influenza virus. Neuraminidase plays an important role in releasing new virus particles from the surface of infected cells, enabling the virus to spread.