Ribavirin Derivatives

Last Updated on September 26, 2022 by amin


How much is ribavirin cost?

Wholesale Prices of Ribavirin

Drug Name Dose Price Per Month for Generic*
Ribavirin 8001,400 mg daily 800 mg: $1,192 1,000 mg: $1,490 1,200 mg: $1,787 1,400 mg: $2,085

Is ribavirin a protease inhibitor?

With US Food and Drug Administration approval of boceprevir and telaprevir–two protease inhibitors–the standard-of-care treatment for genotype-1 infection, the main genotype worldwide, is now peginterferon plus ribavirin and a protease inhibitor.

What is the best hep C treatment?

Hepatitis C is treated using direct-acting antiviral (DAA) tablets. DAA tablets are the safest and most effective medicines for treating hepatitis C. They’re highly effective at clearing the infection in more than 90% of people. The tablets are taken for 8 to 12 weeks.

What is Fixcom 4 used for?

Fixcom 4: For initial or intensive phase treatment of all forms of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

What is DAAs medication?

Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are a newer class of drugs used to treat hepatitis C. DAAs target specific steps in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle. DAAs have shorter treatment times, fewer side effects, and higher SVR rates than older drugs.

How is ribavirin synthesized?

Ribavirin, 1-?-d-ribofuranosyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-carboxamide (36.1. 28), is synthesized by reacting methyl ester of 1,2,4-triazol-3-carboxylic acid with O-1,2,3, 5-tetraacetyl-?-d-ribofuranose to make methyl ester of 1-O-2,3,5-tetraacetyl-?-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-carboxylic acid (36.1.

Is ribavirin available in the US?

Ribavirin is an antiviral prescription medicine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV).

What drug class is rifampin?

Rifampin belongs to the class of medicines called antibiotics and works to kill or prevent the growth of bacteria. However, it will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

What are the side effects of taking Remdesivir?


  • Back pain.
  • chest tightness.
  • dark-colored urine.
  • flushing.
  • headache.
  • hives, itching.
  • light-colored stools.
  • nausea and vomiting.

What are the antiviral drugs for Covid?

Remdesivir is the only drug that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of COVID-19. Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid), molnupiravir, and certain anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have received Emergency Use Authorizations from the FDA for the treatment of COVID-19.

What is NS5A inhibitor?

Non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors are a direct-acting antiviral agent used to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV). The NS5A protein has a substantial role in viral replication, packaging, assembly and complex interactions with cellular functions.

When was ribavirin approved by FDA?

Approval Date: 12/23/2002.

Who makes Efavirenz?

History. Efavirenz was approved by the FDA on 21 September 1998. On 17 February 2016, the FDA approved the generic tablet formulation to be produced by Mylan.

What is aerosolized ribavirin?

Aerosolized ribavirin is the first approved agent for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.

What is the generic name for ribavirin?

Ribavirin (Rebetol) is an antiviral medication used with other antivirals for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection.

What does NS5A stand for?

Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is a zinc-binding and proline-rich hydrophilic phosphoprotein that plays a key role in Hepatitis C virus RNA replication. It appears to be a dimeric form without trans-membrane helices.

What antiviral is used for hep C?

For many years, a combination of two antiviral drugs were used to treat hepatitis C. Antiviral drugs are medications designed to rid the body of viruses. The two medications are called pegylated interferon (PEG-INF) and ribavirin (RBV). PEG is taken as a weekly injection.

Is ribavirin an mRNA?

Ribavirin is also a substrate for viral guanylyl transferases (Goswami et al. 1979; Bougie and Bisaillon 2004) leading to the generation of viral mRNA transcripts that contain a 5? RpppN structure (where R is ribavirin and N is any nucleotide) instead of 5? GpppN (Bougie and Bisaillon 2004).

Which company makes ribavirin?

Ribavirin for intravenous administration is of limited availability, produced by ICN Pharmaceuticals/Valent Pharamceuticals International for compassionate use under an investigational new drug application.

How is ribavirin activated?

Inhibition of IMPDH IMPDH inhibition was proposed as the mechanism of action of ribavirin shortly after its discovery. Ribavirin monophosphate mimics inosine 5?-monophosphate (Figure 2) and is a competitive inhibitor of IMPDH, an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides.

Is ribavirin still available?

Rebetol will be discontinued on or near June 2019. Brand Rebetol capsules will continue to be available. Generic ribavirin is currently available as a tablet and capsule.

Is ribavirin used for Covid?

Reviews of the literature suggest that ribavirin might be of benefit in patients with coronavirus infection [4]. However, other studies have shown that ribavirin may not improve outcomes [5,6]. In addition, ribavirin has potential adverse effects [7], therefore its clinical use should be carefully assessed.

Which of the following is a NS3/4A protease inhibitor?

A hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor used in combination with other medications to treat chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection.

NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors.

Drug Target Type
Boceprevir Cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme
Boceprevir Cytochrome P450 3A5 enzyme
Boceprevir P-glycoprotein 1 transporter
Boceprevir NS3/4A protein target

Is ribavirin still used for RSV?

Treatment of RSV is limited by a lack of effective antiviral treatments; however, ribavirin has been used in complicated cases, along with the addition of intravenous immune globulin in specific patients.

Who makes Ritonavir?

Ritonavir is manufactured as Norvir by AbbVie, Inc. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ritonavir on March 1, 1996, making it the seventh U.S.-approved antiretroviral drug and the second U.S.-approved protease inhibitor (after saquinavir four months earlier).

Who invented Epclusa?

Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir was developed by the pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2016. In the European Union it was approved in July 2016, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in adults.

What is the generic name for Kaletra?

Lopinavir/ritonavir is available in 100/25mg and 200/50mg tablets and a 80/200mg per ml solution.

What is the MOA of ribavirin?

The drug inhibits the activity of the enzyme RNA dependent RNA polymerase, due to its resemblence to building blocks of the RNA molecules. Ribavirin is reported to have several mechanism of actions that lead to inhibition of viral RNA and protein synthesis.

What is NS5A and NS5B?

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein contains the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity that catalyzes the synthesis of the viral genome with other host and viral factors. NS5A is an HCV-encoded protein previously shown to localize to the replisome and be necessary for viral replication.

What is ribavirin prescribed for?

The combination of ribavirin and peginterferon alfa-2b is used to treat adults and children 3 years of age and older who show symptoms of liver damage. Ribavirin is an antiviral agent that treats hepatitis C virus. This product is available in the following dosage forms: Tablet.

Is rifampin bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Antibiotic action: Rifampin impairs RNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Rifampin may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal, depending on organism susceptibility and drug level at infection site. Rifampin acts against Mycobacterium bovis, M. kansasii, M.

Is rifampin and rifampicin the same?

Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium avium complex, leprosy, and Legionnaires’ disease.

Is ritonavir a generic drug?

Ritonavir (Norvir) is available as a generic medication and may be significantly cheaper compared to the brand version.

What is DAA therapy for HCV?

Notably, this has led to the development of multiple direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which are medications targeted at specific steps within the HCV life cycle (figure 1). DAAs are molecules that target specific nonstructural proteins of the virus and results in disruption of viral replication and infection.

Is ribavirin an NS5A?

Core tip: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitors such as daclatasvir and ledipasvir in combination with other direct-acting antiviral agents against other regions of HCV with or without peginterferon/ribavirin are becoming available for daily clinical practice.

Why does ribavirin cause anemia?

However, because red blood cells lack dephosphorylation enzymes, ribavirin accumulates in cells and destroys the cells, causing hemolytic anemia. The pretreatment hemoglobin concentration could be a significant factor in ribavirin-induced anemia.

Is ribavirin an immunomodulator?

14 This interpretation is supported by a modest, but significant, increase in ISG up-regulation in patients treated with PEG-IFN-?/RBV, compared with IFN-? alone,14 suggesting a role for RBV as a modulator of innate immunity. These findings indicate numerous potential clinical applications of RBV as an immunomodulator.

When is ribavirin contraindicated?

Ribavirin therapy is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in the male partners of women who are pregnant. Extreme care must be taken to avoid pregnancy during therapy and for 6 months after completion of treatment in both female patients and in female partners of male patients who are taking ribavirin therapy.

What is DAA treatment?

The DAA agents target multiple steps in the HCV replication life cycle, are highly effective and safe and require a short treatment duration. Virtually all patients are suitable for DAA therapy, including those previously intolerant of or ineligible for IFN therapy.

Is ribavirin a DAA?

The role of ribavirin (RBV) in the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is not clear, and DAA studies have been largely genotype- and regimen-specific.

Ribavirin Derivatives

Derivatives of ribavirin are also prepared by enzymatic synthesis and Vorbrggen coupling methods. 1-?-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamidine (TCNR) and 5-amino-TCNR act as competitive reversible inhibitors of human lymphoblast purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP).Aug 23, 2018

Is sofosbuvir a DAA?

One of the most potent DAA medications is sofosbuvir, a pan-genotypic nucleotide analogue that inhibits the NS5B polymerase of HCV.

What is SVR medical?

Introduction. Peripheral vascular resistance (systemic vascular resistance, SVR) is the resistance in the circulatory system that is used to create blood pressure, the flow of blood and is also a component of cardiac function. When blood vessels constrict (vasoconstriction) this leads to an increase in SVR.

What is ribavirin made of?

Each capsule contains 200 mg ribavirin and the inactive ingredients microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. The capsule shell consists of gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate, silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide.

What class of drug is ribavirin?

Ribavirin is in a class of antiviral medications called nucleoside analogues. It works by stopping the virus that causes hepatitis C from spreading inside the body.